UGC NET Exam 2023 : Notification (OUT) , Application Form , Exam Date & Syllabus
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UGC NET Exam Application form Released Date : 10 / 05 / 2023
Last Date for submission of the application form : 31 / 05 / 2023
Admit Card Release : Second Week of June 2023
CSIR-NET Exam Date : 13 – 22 June 2023
Conduct Agency : NTA (National Testing Agency )
UGC NET Exam Pattern : Online Mode (CBT)
UGC NET Exam Result : Notified Soon
The Validity of UGC NET Exam Score Card : 2 Years ( Effective from the Date Mentioned in NET Certificate )
UGC NET Exam Eligibility Criteria : –
The condinates who qualify in UGC NET Exam shall have to fullfill the following Eligibility Requirement for Application form.
- Passed / Appeared Master Degree in Concerned ubject with at Least Minimum 55 % Marks.
CSIR-NET Exam Age Limit & Relaxation :-
- For JRF (NET) : Maximum 28 years ( upper age limit may be relaxable up to 5 years in case of SC / ST / Persons with Disability (PWD) / female applicants and 03 years in case of OBC (Non – Creamy Layer) Applicants.
- For Lectureship ( NET ) : No upper Age limit.
UGC NET Exam Pattern : –
- UGC NET Exam will conducted Online Mode(CBT) .
- Duration of Exam will be 3 hours.
- Question Type : MCQs
- UGC NET Paper divided in Two Papers : Paper – 1 & Paper – 2
- Both Papers complete in a single duration of 3 Hours.
- Number of Questions : 150 Questions
- Total Marks : 300 Marks.
- Each Questions : 2 Marks
- No Negative Marking
- Only Virtual Scientific Calculator is allowed . Charts , Graph Sheets , Tables , Cellular Phone or Other Electronic Gadgets are NOT allowes in the examination hall.
|NTA UGC NET||Questions||Marks|
|Paper -1 ( Teaching / Research Aptitude)||50||100|
|Paper – 2 ( Based on the core subject)||100||200|
UGC NET Marking Scheme :
The candidates will be awarded 2 marks for correct answer and no marks will be deducted for incorrect answers as there is no negative marking scheme in the UGC NET Exam. Candidates can know the marking scheme in the given table below :
|Types of Answer||Marks|
|Total Marks in UGC NET||300 Marks|
UGC NET Syllabus 2023 : –
UGC NET Syllabus 2023 is prescribed by the University Grants Commission(UGC). The NTA UGC NET Syllabus is different for Paper – 1 and Paper – 2 . The UGC NET Paper -1 Syllabus 2023 is common for all candidates. On the other hand, the UGC NET Paper – 2 syllabus varies for all 83 Subjects. Candidates need to choose the subject for Paper – 2 while submitting the UGC NET application form.
UGC NET Paper – 1 Syllabus 2023 : –
The UGC NET Paper – 1 syllabus has been given below for the candidates who are willing to apper for the UGC NET Exam . Paper – 1 comrices 50 questions from 10 units that hold a total weightage of 100 marks.
- Teaching Aptitude
- Research Aptitude
- Mathematical Reasoning and Aptitude
- Logical Resoning
- Data Interpretation
- Information andd Communication Technology(ICT)
- People , Development and Environment
- Higher Education System
- Teaching : Concept , objectives , levels of teaching(memory , understanding and reflective), characteristics and basic requirements.
- Learner’s characteristics : Characteristics of adolescent and adult lerners 9 academic , social , emotional and cognitive), individual differences
- Factors affecting teaching related to : Teacher , Learner , Support material , Instructional facilities , Learning environment and Institution.
- Methods of teaching in higher learning Institutions : Teacher centred vs learner – centred methods ; offline vs online methods ( Swayam , Swayamprabha , MOOC;s etc.)
- Teaching support system : Traditional , modern and ICT based
- Evaluation systems : Elements and types of evaluation , evalution in choice Based Crdit Systems in Higher Eduation, Computer – based testing , innovations in evaluation systems.
- Research : Meaning types and characteristics , positivism and post – positivistic approach to reseach.
- Mehods of reseach : Experimental , descriptive , Hostorical , qualitative and quantitative methods
- Steps of reseach
- Thesis and article writing : Format and styles of referencing
- Application of ICT in Research
- Research ethics
- A passage of text is given . Questions are asked from the passage which needs to be answered.
- Communication : Meaning , types and characteristics of communication
- Effective Communication : Verbal and non – verbal, inter-cultural and group communications, classroom communication
- Barriers to effective communication
- Mass-media and society
Mathematical Reasoning and Aptitude
- Types of reasoning
- Number series , letter series codes and relationships
- Mathematical aptitude ( fraction , time and distance , ratio , propotion and percentage , profit and loss , interest and discounting , averages etc.)
- Understanding the stricture of arguments : Argument forms , the structure of categorical propositions , mood and figure , formal and informal fallacies , uses of language , connotations , and denotations of terms , the classical square of opposition
- Evaluating nd distinguishing deductive and inductive reasoning
- Venn diagrom : Simple and Multiple uses for establishing the validity of arguments
- Indian Logic : Means of Knowledge
- Pramanas : Pratyaksha (Perception) , Anumana(Interence), Upamana(Comparison) , Shabda (Verbal testimony), Arthapatti (Implication) and Anupalabddhi ( Non- apprehension)
- Structure and kinds of Aunmana (inference), Vyapti(invariable relation), Hetvabhasa (fallacies of inference)
- Sources , acquisition and classification of data
- Quantitative and qualitative data
- Graphical representation(bar-chart, histograms, pie-chart, table-chart and line-chart) and mapping of data
- Data interpretation
- Data and governance
Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
- ICT : General abbreviations and terminology
- Basics of Internet , Email , Audio and Video confrencing
- Digital initiatives in higher education
People , Development and Environment
- Development and environment : Millennium development and Sustainable development foals
- Human and environment interaction : Anthropogrnic activities and their impacts on the environment
- Environment Issus : Local , refional and global , air pollution , water pollution , soil pollution , noise pollution , waste ( solid , liquid , biomedical , hazardous , electronic), climate change and its socio-economic and political dimensions
- Impacts of pollutions on human helth
- Natural and energy resources : Solar , Wind , Soil , Hydro , Geothermal , Biomass , Nuclear and Forests
- Natural hazards and disasters : Mitigation strategies
- Environmental Protection Act(1986), National Action Plan on Climate Change , International Agreements / efforts – Montreal Protocol , Ria Summit , Convention on Biodiversity , Kyoto Protocal , Paris Agreement , International Solar Alliance.
Higher Education System
- Institutions of higher learning and education in ancient india
- Evolution of higher learning and research in post-inependence India
- Oriental, convrntional and non-conventional learning programmers in India
- Professional , technical and skill-based education
- Value education and environmental education
- Policies , governance and administration.
UGC NET Paper – 1 Syllabus PDF : Download
The candidates who are preparing for the UGC NET exam can check the PDF for the UGC NET Paper -1 syllabus. The PDF can be downloaded and can be used while preparing for the exam . The Paper comprises 10 units and holds a total of 100 marks in the UGC NET Exam. The PDF Link has been given below for the candidates :paper-1
UGC NET Paper – 2 Syllabus 2023 :-
UGC NET Paper – 2 exam is subject specific and based on the subjects chosen by the candidate. Paper – 2 comprices 100 questions that hold two marks for each correct answer. The maximum mark in Paper – 2 is two hundred. The candidates have to start preparing for the paper – 2 exams from their university days as paper 2 is for specialisation. The candidates have to choose the subject that they have studied in their post – graduation for paper – 2 . The PDF for UGC NET Paper – 2 Syllabus has been given below for the candidates.
UGC NET Economics Syllabus : –
The candidates who are going to appear for the upcoming exam for UGC NET Economics exam must go through the entire syllabus before start preparing for the exam. The economics comprises 10 units. The UGC NET Economics syllabus has been given below for the candidates :
Unit – 1 : Micro Economics
- Theory of Consumer Behaviour
- Theory of Production and Costs
- Decision making under uncertainty Attitude towards Risk
- Game Theory – Non Cooperative games
- Market Structures, competitive and non-competitive equilibria and their efficiency properties
- Factor Pricing
- General Equilibrium Analysis
- Efficiency Criteria: Pareto-Optimality, Kaldor – Hicks and Wealth Maximization
- Welfare Economics: Fundamental Theorems , Social Welfare Function Asymmetric Information: Adverse Selection and Moral Hazard
Unit – 2 : Macro Economics
- National Income: Concepts and Measurement
- Determination of output and employment: Classical & Keynesian Approach
- Consumption Function
- Investment Function
- Multiplier and Accelerator
- Demand for Money
- Supply of Money
- IS – LM Model Approach
- Inflation and Phillips Curve Analysis
- Business Cycles
- Monetary and Fiscal Policy
- Rational Expectation Hypothesis and its critique
Unit – 3 : Statistics and Econometrics
- Probability Theory: Concepts of probability, Distributions, Moments, Central Limit theorem
- Descriptive Statistics – Measures of Central tendency & dispersions, Correlation, Index Numbers
- Sampling methods & Sampling Distribution
- Statistical Inferences, Hypothesis testing
- Linear Regression Models and their properties – BLUE
- Identification Problem
- Simultaneous Equation Models – recursive and non-recursive
- Discrete choice models
- Time Series Analysis
Unit – 4 : Mathematical Economics
- Sets, functions and continuity, sequence, series
- Differential Calculus and its Applications
- Linear Algebra – Matrices, Vector Spaces
- Static Optimization Problems and their applications
- Input-Output Model, Linear Programming
- Difference and Differential equations with applications
Unit – 5 : International Economics
- International Trade: Basic concepts and analytical tools
- Theories of International Trade
- International Trade under imperfect competition
- Balance of Payments: Composition, Equilibrium and Disequilibrium and Adjustment Mechanisms
- Exchange Rate: Concepts and Theories
- Foreign Exchange Market and Arbitrage
- Gains from Trade, Terms of Trade, Trade Multiplier
- Tariff and Non-Tariff barriers to trade; Dumping
- GATT, WTO and Regional Trade Blocks; Trade Policy Issues IMF & World Bank
Unit – 6 : Public Economics
- Market Failure and Remedial Measures: Asymmetric Information, Public Goods, Externality
- Regulation of Market – Collusion and Consumers’ Welfare
- Public Revenue: Tax & Non-Tax Revenue, Direct & Indirect Taxes, Progressive and non-Progressive Taxation, Incidence and Effects of Taxation
- Public expenditure
- Public Debt and its management
- Public Budget and Budget Multiplier
- Fiscal Policy and its implications
Unit – 7 : Money and Banking
- Components of Money Supply
- Central Bank
- Commercial Banking
- Instruments and Working of Monetary Policy
- Non-banking Financial Institutions
- Capital Market and its Regulation
Unit – 8 : Growth and Development Economics
- Economic Growth and Economic Development
- Theories of Economic Development: Adam Smith, Ricardo, Marx, Schumpeter, Rostow, Balanced & Unbalanced growth, Big Push approach.
- Models of Economic Growth: Harrod-Domar, Solow, Robinson, Kaldor
- Technical progress – Disembodied & embodied; endogenous growth
- Indicators of Economic Development: PQLI, HDI, SDGs Poverty and Inequalities – Concepts and Measurement
- Social Sector Development: Health, Education, Gender
Unit – 9 : Environmental Economics and Demography
- Environment as a Public Good
- Market Failure
- Coase Theorem
- Cost-Benefit Analysis and Compensation Criteria
- Valuation of Environmental Goods
- Theories of Population
- Concepts and Measures: Fertility, Morbidity, Mortality
- Age Structure, Demographic Dividend
- Life Table
Unit – 10 : Indian Economy
- Economic Growth in India: Pattern and Structure
- Agriculture: Pattern & Structure of Growth, Major Challenges, Policy Responses
- Industry: Pattern & Structure of Growth, Major Challenges, Policy Responses
- Services: Pattern & Structure of Growth, Major Challenges, Policy Responses
- Rural Development – Issues, Challenges & Policy Responses Urban Development – Issues, Challenges and Policy Responses.
- Foreign Trade: Structure and Direction, BOP, Flow of Foreign Capital, Trade Policies
- Infrastructure Development: Physical and Social; Public-Private Partnerships
- Reforms in Land, Labour and Capital Markets
- Centre-State Financial Relations and Finance Commissions of India ; FRBM
- Poverty, Inequality & Unemployment
UGC NET Economics Syllabus Download :-Economics 1
UGC NET Political Science Syllabus :
The candidates who are willing to apper for the UGC NET Exam 2023 for the December cycle can check the syllabus for Political Science below :
Unit – 1 : Political Theory
- Liberty, Equality, Justice, Rights, Democracy, Power, Citizenship,
- Political Traditions
Unit – 2 : Political Thought
- Confucius, Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Hegel, Mary Wollstonecraft, John Stuart Mill, Karl Marx, Gramsci, Hannah Arendt, Frantz Fanon, Mao Zedong, John Rawls
Unit – 3 : Indian Political Thought
- Dharamshastra, Kautilya, Aggannasutta, Barani, Kabir, Pandita Ramabai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Swami Vivekanand, Rabindranath Tagore, M.K Gandhi, Sri Aurobindo, Periyar E. V. Ramasamy, Muhammad Iqbal, M.N.Roy, V D Savarkar, Dr. B.R.Ambedkar, J L Nehru, Ram Manohar Lohia, Jaya Prakash Narayan, Deendayal Upadhyaya
Unit – 4 : Comparative Political Analysis
- Approaches: Institutional, Political Culture, Political Economy and New Institutionalism; Comparative Methods
- Colonialism and decolonization: forms of colonialism, anti-colonial struggles and decolonization
- Nationalism: European and non-European.
- State theory: debate over the nature of state in capitalist and socialist societies; post-colonial state; welfare state; globalization and nations-states
- Political regimes: democratic (Electoral, Liberal, Majoritarian and Participatory) and non-democratic regimes (Patrimonialism, Bureaucratic authoritarianism, Military dictatorship, Totalitarianism, and fascist).
- Constitutions and Constitutionalism: forms of constitutions, rule of law, judicial independence and liberal constitutionalism; emergency powers and crisis of constitutionalism.
- Democratisation: democratic transition and consolidation.
- Development: Underdevelopment, Dependency, Modernization, World Systems Theory, development and democracy.
- Structures of Power: ruling class, power elites, democratic elitism
- Actor and Processes: Electoral Systems, Political Parties and Party System, Interest groups, Social movements, new social movements, Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and civil society campaigns; Revolutions.
Unit – 5 : International Relations
- Approaches to the study of International relations: Idealism, Realism, Structural Marxism, Neoliberalism, Neorealism, Social Constructivism, Critical International Theory, Feminism, Postmodernism.
- Concepts: State, state system and non-state actors, Power, Sovereignty, Security: traditional and non- traditional.
- Conflict and Peace: Changing Nature of Warfare; Weapons of mass destruction; deterrence; conflict resolution, conflict transformation.
- United Nations: Aims, Objectives, Structure and Evaluation of the Working of UN; Peace and Development perspectives; Humanitarian intervention. International law; International Criminal Court
- Political Economy of IR; Globalisation; Global governance and Bretton Woods system, North-South Dialogue, WTO, G-20, BRICS.
- Regional Organisations: European Union, African Union, Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, ASEAN.
- Contemporary Challenges: International terrorism, Climate change and Environmental Concerns, Human Rights, Migration and Refugees; Poverty and Development; Role of Religion, Culture and Identity Politics.
Unit – 6 : India’s Foreign Policy
- Perspectives on India’s Foreign Policy: India’s Identity as postcolonial, development, rising power and as emerging political economy
- Continuity and change in India’s Foreign Policy: Principles and determinants; Non-Alignment movement: historical background and relevance of Non Aligned Movement; India’s Nuclear Policy
- India’s relations with major powers: USA, USSR/Russia, People’s Republic of China
- India’s Engagement with multipolar world: India’s relations with European Union,
- BRICS, ASEAN, Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, African Union, Southern African Development Community, Gulf Cooperation Council
- India’s relations with neighbourhood: SAARC, Gujaral doctrine, Look Eas t/ Act East, Look West.
- India’s Negotiation Strategies in International Regimes: The United Nations, World Trade Organisation, International Monetary Fund, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
- Contemporary challenges: maritime security, energy security, environmental security, migrants and refugees, water resources, international terrorism, cyber security
Unit – 7 : Political Institutions in India
- Making of the Indian Constitution: Colonialism heritage and the contribution Indian National Movement to the making of the Indian Constitution
- Constituent Assembly: Composition, Ideological Moorings, Constitutional Debates
- Philosophy of the Constitution: Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles
- Constitutionalism in India: Democracy, Social Change, National Unity, Checks and Balances, Basic Structure Debate, Constitutional Amendments Union Executive: President, Prime Minister and Council of Ministers
- Union Parliament: Structure, Role and Functioning, Parliamentary Committees
- Judiciary: Supreme Court, High Court, Judicial Review, Judicial Activism, Judicial Reform.
- Executive and Legislature in the States: Governor, Chief Minister, State Legislature
- Federalism in India: Strong Centre Framework, Asymmetrical Federal Provisions and Adaption, Role of Intergovernmental Coordination Mechanisms, Inter-State Council, Emerging Trends.
- Electoral Process and Election Commission of India: Conduct of Elections, Rules, Electoral Reforms.
- Local Government Institutions: Functioning and reforms.
- Constitutional and Statutory Bodies: Comptroller and Auditor General, National
- Commission for Scheduled Castes, National Commission for Scheduled Tribes, National Commission for Human Rights, National Commission for Women, National Commission for Minorities.
Unit – 8 : Political Processes in India
- State, Economy and Development: Nature of Indian State, Development Planning model, New Economic Policy, Growth and Human Development.
- Process of globalisation: social and economic implications.
- Identity Politics: Religion, Tribe, Caste, Region, Language.
- Social Movements: Dalit, Tribal, Women, Farmers, labour
- Civil Society Groups: Non-Party Social Formations, Non-Governmental Organisations, Social Action Groups.
- Regionalisation of Indian Politics: Reorganisation of Indian States, States as Political and Economic Units, Sub-State Regions, Regional disparities, Demand for New States,
- Gender and Politics in India: Issues of Equality and Representation.
- Ideology and Social basis of Political Parties: National Parties, State Parties.
- Electoral Politics: Participation, Contestation, Representation, Emerging trends.
Unit – 9 : Public Administration
- Public Administration: meaning and evolution; public and private administration Approaches: System Theory, Decision Making, Ecological Approach
- Public administration theories and concepts: Scientific Management Theory, Rational Choice theory, New Public Administration, Development Administration, Comparative Public Administration, New Public Management, changing nature of Public Administration in the era of liberalisation and Globalisation
- Theories and Principles of Organization: Scientific Management Theory, Bureaucratic Theory, Human Relations Theory
- Managing the organization: Theories of leadership and motivation.
- Organisational Communication : Theories and Principles, Chester Bernard Principles of Communication, Information Management in the organization
- Managing Conflict in the Organization: Mary Parker Follett
- Management by Objectives – Peter Drucker
Unit – 10 : Governance and Public Policy in India
- Governance, good governance and democratic governance, role of state, civil society and individuals.
- Accountability and control: Institutional mechanism for checks and balances, legislative control over executive, administrative and budgetary control, control through parliamentary committees, judicial control over legislature and executive, administrative culture, corruption and administrative reforms
- Institutional mechanisms for good governance: Right to Information, Consumer Protection Act, Citizen Charter; Grievance redress system: Ombudsman, Lokpal, Lokayukta
- Grassroots Governance: Panchayati Raj Institutions and their functioning
- Planning and Development: Decentralised planning, planning for development, sustainable development, participatory development, e-governance; NITI Aayog
- Public policy as an instrument of socio-economic development: public policies with special reference to housing, health, drinking water, food security, MNREGA, NHRM, RTE
- Monitoring and evaluation of public policy; mechanisms of making governance process accountable: jansunwai, social audit.
UGC NET Political Science Syllabus Download :-Political Science
Download Subject Wise UGC NET Paper 2 Syllabus PDF
The subject of UGC NET Paper 2 Needs to be chosen by the candidates . A candidate can choose the subject of his / her post – graduation or a related subject. NTA UGC NET is conducted for a total of 83 subjects. Click on the PDF Links below to check the UGC NET Paper – 2 Syllabus for all 83 subjects .
|UGC NET Paper 2 Subject List||Subject Code||Syllabus PDF|
|Economics / Rural Economics / Co-operation / Demography / Development Planning / Development Studies / Econometrics / Applied Economics / Development Economics / Business Economics||01||Click Here|
|Political Science||02||Click Here|
|Social Work||10||Click Here|
|Defence and Strategic studies||11||Click Here|
|Home Science||12||Click Here|
|Public Administration||14||Click Here|
|Population studies||15||Click Here|
|Management (including Business Admn. Mgt. / Marketing / Marketing Mgt. / Industrial Relation and Personnel Mgt. / Personnel Mgt. / Financial Mgt. / Co-operative Management)||17||Click Here|
|French (French Veersion)||39||Click Here|
|Adult Education / Continuing Education / Andragogy / Non Formal Education||46||Click Here|
|Physical Education||47||Click Here|
|Arab Culture and Islamic Studies||49||Click Here|
|Indian Culture||50||Click Here|
|Labour Welfare / Personnel Management / Industrial Relations / Labour and Social Welfare / Human Resource Management||55||Click Here|
|Library and Information Science||59||Click Here|
|Buddhist , Jaina , Gandhian and Peace Studies||60||Click Here|
|Comparative Study of Religions||62||Click Here|
|Mass Communication and Journalism||63||Click Here|
|Performing Art – Dance / Drama / Theatre||65||Click Here|
|Museology & Conservation||66||Click Here|
|Tribal and Regional Language / Literature||70||Click Here|
|Folk Literature||71||Click Here|
|Comprarative Literature||72||Click Here|
|Sanskrit traditional subjects (including) Jyotisha / Sidhanta Jyotish / Navya Vyakarna / Sankhya Yoga / Tulanatmaka Darsan / Shukla Yajurveda / Madhav Vedant / Dharmasasta / Sahitya / Puranotihasa/ Agama)||73||Click Here|
|Women Studies||74||Click Here|
|Visual Art ( including Drawing & Painting / Sculpture / Graphics / Applied Art / History of Art)||79||Click Here|
|Social Medicine * Community Health||81||Click Here|
|Forensic Science||82||Click Here|
|Computer Science and Applications||87||Click Here|
|Electronic Science||88||Click Here|
|Environmental Sciences||89||Click Here|
|Politics including International Relations / International Studies including efence / Strategic Studies , West Asian Studies , South East Asian Studies , African Studies , South Asian Studies , Soviet Studies , American Studies||90||Click Here|
|Human Rights and Duties||92||Click Here|
|Tourism Administration and Management||93||Click Here|
|Hindu Studies||102||Click Here|
UGC NET Philosophy Syllabus :-
Unit – 1 : Classical Indian : Epistemology and Metaphysics
- Vedic and Upanisadic: Rta – the cosmic order, the divine and the human realms; the centrality of the institution of yajna (sacrifice), theories of creation Atman – Self ( and not – self ), Jagrat, Svapna, Susupti and turiya, Brahman.
- Carvaka : Pratyaksa as the only pramana, critique of anumana and śabda, Consciousness as epi-phenomenon.
- Jainism : Concept of reality – sat, dravya, guna, paryaya, Jiva, ajiva, anekantavada, syadvada and nayavada; theory of knowledge.
- Buddhism : Four Noble Truths, Astangika Marga, Distinction between Brahminic and Sraminic Pratityasamutpada, ksanabhahgavada, anatmavada. Schools of Buddhism : Vaibhasika, Sautrantika, Yogacara, Mādhyamika and Tibetan Buddhism.
- Nyāya : Prama and aprama, Theories of pramana: pratyakṣa, anumana, upamana, sabda. Hetvabhasa. Concept of God. Debate between Buddhism and Nyaya about Pramana-Vyavastha and Pramana Samplava. Anyathakhyati.
- Vaiśeṣika : Concept of padartha and its kinds, Asatkaryavada, Kinds of Karana: samavayi, asamavayi, and nimitta karana, paramanukaranavada.
- Samkhya : Satkaryavada, prakṛti and its evolutes, arguments for the existence of prakrti, nature of purusa, arguments for the existence and plurality of purusa, relationship between purusa and prakrti, atheism.
- Yoga : Patanjali’s Theory of Pramana, concept of citta and citta – vrtti, stages of cittbhumi, the role of God in Yoga.
- Purva – Mimamsa : Pramanyavada : Svatah-pramaṇyavada and Paratah-pramanyavada, Sruti and its importance, classification of sruti-vakyas, vidhi, nisedha and arthavada, dharma, bhavana, sabda-nityavada, Jati, saktivada; Kumarila and Prabhakara Schools of Mimaṃsa and their major points of difference, triputi – samvit, jnatata, abhava and anupalabdhi, anvitadbhidhanavada, abhihitanvayavada, Theories of error: Akhyati, Viparitakhyati,
- Advaita : Brahman, relation between Brahmaṇ and Atman, three grades of satta, Adhyasa, maya, Jiva, Vivartavāda, Anirvachniya-khyati.
- Visistadvaita : Saguna Brahman, refutation of maya, aprthaksiddhi parinamavada, Jiva, bhakti and prapatti, Brahma-Parinamavada, Sat-khyati.
- Dvaita : Rejection of nirguna brahman and maya, bheda and saksi, bhakti.
- Dvaitavaita: Concept of Jnanaswaroop, kinds of inanimate
- Sudhadvaita: Concept of Avikrta-parinamavada.
Unit – 2 : Classical Western : Ancient, Medieval, and Modern : Epistemology and Metaphysics
Pre-Socratic Philosophers : Thales, Anaxagoras, Anaximenies, Ionians, Pythagoras, Parmenides, Heraclitus and Democritus,
The Sophists and Socrates
Plato and Aristotle :
- Plato – Theory of knowledge, knowledge and opinion, theory of Ideas, the method of dialectic, soul and God.
- Aristotle – Classification of the sciences, the theoretical, the practical and the productive, logic as an organon, critique of Plato’s theory of Ideas, theory of causation, form and matter, potentiality and actuality, soul and God.
Medieval Philosophy :
- Augustine: Problem of Evil.
- Anselm: Ontological argument.
- Thomas Aquinas: Faith and Reason, Essence and Existence, the Existence of God.
Modern Western Philosophy :
- Descartes : Conception of method , Criteria of truth, doubt and methodological scepticism, cogito ergo sum, innate ideas, Cartesian dualism: mind and matter, proofs for the existence of God, interactionism.
- Spinoza : Substance, Attribute and Mode, the concept of ‘God or Nature’, Intellectual love of God, parallelism, pantheism, three orders of knowing.
- Leibnitz : Monadology, truths of reason and fact, innateness of ideas, proofs for the existence of God, principles of non – contradiction, sufficient reason and identity of indiscernibles, the doctrine of pre -established harmony, problem of freedom.
- Locke : Ideas and their classification, refutation of innate ideas, theory of substance, distinction between primary and secondary qualities, theory of knowledge, three grades of knowledge.
- Berkeley : Rejection of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities, immaterialism, critique of abstract ideas, esse est percipi, the problem of solipcism; God and self.
- Hume : Impressions and ideas, knowledge concerning relations of ideas and knowledge concerning matters of fact, induction and causality, the external world and the self, personal identity, rejection of metaphysics, scepticism, reason and the passions.
- Kant : The critical philosophy, classification of judgements, possibility of synthetic a priori judgements, the Copernican revolution, forms of sensibility, categories of understanding, the metaphysical and the transcendental deduction of the categories, phenomenon and noumenon, the Ideas of Reason – soul, God and world as a whole, rejection of speculative metaphysics.
- Hegel : The conception of Geist (spirit), the dialectical method, concepts of being, non – being and becoming, absolute idealism, Freedom.
Unit – 3 : Indian Ethics
- Concept of Purusartha, Sreyas and Preyas
- Varnashrama, Dharma, Sadharana Dharma
- Rna and yajna, Concept of duty
- Karma-yoga, Sthitprajna, Svadharma, Lokasaṃgraha
- Apurva and Adrsta
- Sadhya-Sadhana, Itikartavyata
- Law of Karma : ethical implications
- Rta and Satya Yoga-kśema
- Astanga Yoga
- Jainism : Samvara-nirjara, Tri-ratna, Panch-vrata.
- Buddhism: Upaya-Kaushal, Brahma-vihara: matri, karuṇa, mudita, upeksha, bodhisattva
- Carvaka’s Hedonism
Unit – 4 : Western Ethics
- Concepts of Good, right, justice, duty, obligation, cardinal virtues, Eudaemonism, Intuition as explained in Teleological and Deontological Theories.
- Egoism, Altruism, Universalism
- Subjectivism, Cultural Relativism, Super-naturalism.
- Ethical realism and Intuitionism,
- Kant’s moral theory: Postulates of morality, Good-will, Categorical Imperative, Duty, Mean and ends, Maxims.
- Utilitarianism: principle of utility, problem of sanction and justification of morality, kinds of utilitarianism, Moral theories of Bentham, J. S. Mill, Sidgwick
- Theories of Punishment
- Ethical cognitivism and non-cognitivism: Emotivism, Prescriptivism, Descriptivism
Unit – 5 : Contemporary Indian Philosophy
Vivekananda : Practical Vedanta, Universal Religion, Religious Experience, Religious Rituals
Sri Aurobindo : Evolution, mind and supermind, Integral Yoga
Iqbal : Self, God, man and superman, Intellect and Intuition
Tagore : Religion of man, ideas on education, Concept of Nationalism
C. Bhattacharyya : Swaraj in ideas, Concept of Philosophy, subject as Freedom, the doctrine of Maya.
Radhakrishnan: Intellect and intuition, the Idealist view of life, concept of Universal Religion, Hindu view of life.
Krishnamurti : Conception of thought, Freedom from the known, analysis of self, Choiceless awareness
Gandhi : Truth, Non-violence, satyagraha, swaraj, critique of modern civilization.
Ambedkar : Annihilation of caste, philosophy of Hinduism, Neo-Buddhism
D.D. Upadhyaya : Integral Humanism, Advaita Vedanta, Purusartha
Narayana Guru : the spiritual freedom and social equality, one caste, one religion, one God.
Tiruvallur : Tirukkural
Jyotiba Phule : Critical understanding of Caste-system.
M.N.Roy : Radical Humanism, Materialism
Maulana Azad : Humanism
Unit – 6 : Recent Western Philosophy
Analytic and Continental Philosophy :
Frege : Sense and Reference
Logical Positivism : Verification theory of meaning, Elimination of metaphysics, concept of Philosophy
Moore : Distinction between Sense and Reference, Refutation of Idealism, Defense of commonsense, Proof of an External World.
Russell : Logical Atomism, Definite Descriptions, Refutation of Idealism
Wittgenstein : Language and Reality, Facts and objects, names and propositions, the picture theory, critique of private language, meaning and use, forms of life, notion of philosophy, Wittgensteinian Fideism, On Certainty.
Gilbert Ryle : Systematically misleading expressions, category mistake, concept of mind, critique of Cartesian dualism
J. Ayer : The Problem of Knowledge
W.V.O. Quine : Two Dogmas of Empiricism
H.P. Grice and P.F. Strawson : In Defense of a dogma Phenomenology and Existentialism:
Husserl : Phenomenological Method, Philosophy as a rigorous science, Intentionality, Phenomenological Reduction, Inter-subjectivity
Heidegger : The concept of Being (Dasein), Man as being in the world, critique of technological civilization
Kierkegaard : Subjectivity as Truth, Leap of faith
Sartre : Concept of Freedom, Bad-faith, Humanism Morleau-Ponty : Perception, Embodied Consciousness Pragmatism:
William James : Pragmatic Theories of Meaning and Truth, Varieties of Religious experience John Dewey: Concept of Truth, Common-faith, education Post-Modernism :
Nietzsche : Critique of Enlightenment, Will to Power, Genealogy of Moral
Richard Rorty : Critique of representationalism, Against Epistemological method, Edifying Philosophy
Immanuel Levinas : Ethics as a first philosophy, Philosophy of ‘other’
Unit – 7 : Social and Political Philosophy: Indian
- Mahabharata: Danda-niti, foundations, Rajdharma, Law and Governance, Narada’s Questions to King Yudhisthir
- Kautilya: Sovereignty, Seven Pillars of State-craft, State, Society, Social-life, State administration, State economy, law and justice, internal security, welfare and external affairs
- Kamandaki: Social order and State elements
- Constitutional Morality, Secularism and Fundamental Rights
- Constitutionalism, Total revolution, terrorism, Swadeshi, Satyagrah, Sarvodaya, Social
- Democracy, State Socialism, Affirmative Action, Social Justice
- Social Institutions: Family, Marriage, property, education and religion Colonialism
Unit – 8 : Social and Political Philosophy : Western
- Plato : Ideal State and Justice
- Locke, Hobbes, Rousseau: Social Contract Theory
- Isaiah Berlin: Conceptions of Liberty
- Bernard Williams: Idea of Equality
- Liberalism: Rawls; Distributive justice, Nozick; Justice as Entitlement, Dworkin; Justice as equality; Amartya Sen: Global Justice, Freedom and Capability.
- Marxism: Dialectical Materialism, Alienation, Critique of Capitalism, Doctrine of Class Struggle and Classless Society.
- Communitarianism: Communitarian critique of liberal self, Universalism Vs. Particularism,
- Theory of Charles Taylor, MacIntyre, Michael Sandel
- Multiculturalism: Charles Taylor; Politics of recognition, Will Kymlicka; conception of Minority Rights
- Feminism: Basic Concepts: Patriarchy, misogyny, Gender, Theories of Feminism; Liberal, Socialist, radical and eco-feminism
Unit – 9 : Logic
- Truth and Validity
- Denotation and Connotation
- Nature of Propositions
- Categorical Syllogism
- Laws of thought
- Classification of Propositions
- Square of Opposition
- Truth-Functions and Propositional Logic
- Quantification and Rules of Quantification
- Symbolic Logic: Use of symbols
- Decision Procedures: Truth Table, Using Truth- Tables for testing the validity of arguments
- Venn Diagram, informal and formal Fallacies
- Proving Validity, Argument and Argument-form
- Axiomatic System, Consistency, Completeness
- Differences between Deductive and Inductive Logic
Unit – 10 : Applied Philosophy
- What is applied Philosophy?
- Philosophy of Technology; technology, dominance, power and social inequalities
- Democratization of Technology
- Public evaluation of science and technology
- Ethical Implication of information technology, bio-technology, non-technology
- Environmental Ethics: Nature as means or end, Aldo-Leopold; land-ethics, Arne Naess: Deep Ecology, Peter Singer; Animal Rights
- Medical-Ethics: Surrogacy, Doctor-patient relationship, abortion, euthanasia, female-infanticide
- Professional Ethics: Corporate Governance and ethical responsibility
- Media Ethics: ethical issues in Privacy, cyber space, pornography, representation and differences-marginalization
- Legal Ethics: law and morality, Legal Obligation, Authority and Validity of Law Philosophical Counseling: Managing everyday problems
UGC NET Philosophy Syllabus Download :-physlopy
UGC NET Psychology Syllabus :-
Emergence of Psychology :
- Psychological thought in some major Eastern Systems: Bhagavad Gita, Buddhism, Sufism and Integral Yoga. Academic psychology in India: Preindependence era; post-independence era; 1970s: The move to addressing social issues; 1980s: Indigenization; 1990s: Paradigmatic concerns, disciplinary identity crisis; 2000s: Emergence of Indian psychology in academia. Issues: The colonial encounter; Post colonialism and psychology; Lack of distinct disciplinary identity.
- Western: Greek heritage, medieval period and modern period. Structuralism,
- Functionalism, Psychoanalytical, Gestalt, Behaviorism, HumanisticExistential, Transpersonal, Cognitive revolution, Multiculturalism. Four founding paths of academic psychology – Wundt, Freud, James, Dilthey. Issues: Crisis in psychology due to strict adherence to experimentalanalytical paradigm (logical empiricism). Indic influences on modern psychology.
- Essential aspects of knowledge paradigms: Ontology, epistemology, and methodology. Paradigms of Western Psychology: Positivism, Post-Positivism, Critical perspective, Social Constructionism, Existential Phenomenology, and Co-operative Enquiry. Paradigmatic Controversies. Significant Indian paradigms on psychological knowledge: Yoga, Bhagavad Gita, Buddhism, Sufism, and Integral Yoga. Science and spirituality (avidya and vidya). The primacy of self-knowledge in Indian psychology.
Research Methodology and Statistics :
- Research: Meaning, Purpose, and Dimensions.
- Research problems, Variables and Operational Definitions, Hypothesis, Sampling.
- Ethics in conducting and reporting research
- Paradigms of research: Quantitative, Qualitative, Mixed methods approach
- Methods of research: Observation, Survey [Interview, Questionnaires], Experimental, Quasi-experimental, Field studies, Cross-Cultural Studies,
- Phenomenology, Grounded theory, Focus groups, Narratives, Case studies,
- Statistics in Psychology: Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion. Normal Probability Curve. Parametric [t-test] and Non-parametric tests [Sign Test, Wilcoxon Signed rank test, Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Friedman]. Power analysis. Effect size.
- Correlational Analysis: Correlation [Product Moment, Rank Order], Partial correlation, multiple correlation.
- Special Correlation Methods: Biserial, Point biserial, tetrachoric, phi coefficient.
- Regression: Simple linear regression, Multiple regression.
- Factor analysis: Assumptions, Methods, Rotation and Interpretation.
- Experimental Designs: ANOVA [One-way, Factorial], Randomized Block Designs, Repeated Measures Design, Latin Square, Cohort studies, Time series, MANOVA, ANCOVA. Single-subject designs.
Psychological Testing :
- Types of tests
- Test construction: Item writing, item analysis
- Test standardization: Reliability, validity and Norms
- Areas of testing: Intelligence, creativity, neuropsychological tests, aptitude, Personality assessment, interest inventories
- Attitude scales – Semantic differential, Staples, Likert scale.
- Computer-based psychological testing
- Applications of psychological testing in various settings: Clinical, Organizational and business, Education, Counseling, Military. Career guidance.
Biological basis of Behavior :
- Sensory systems: General and specific sensations, receptors and processes
- Neurons: Structure, functions, types, neural impulse, synaptic transmission. Neurotransmitters.
- The Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems – Structure and functions. Neuroplasticity.
- Methods of Physiological Psychology: Invasive methods – Anatomical methods, degeneration techniques, lesion techniques, chemical methods, microelectrode studies. Non-invasive methods – EEG, Scanning methods.
- Muscular and Glandular system: Types and functions
- Biological basis of Motivation: Hunger, Thirst, Sleep and Sex.
- Biological basis of emotion: The Limbic system, Hormonal regulation of behavior.
- Genetics and behavior: Chromosomal anomalies; Nature-Nurture controversy [Twin studies and adoption studies]
Attention, Perception, Learning, Memory and Forgetting :
- Attention:Forms of attention, Models of attention
- Approaches to the Study of Perception: Gestalt and physiological approaches
- Perceptual Organization: Gestalt, Figure and Ground, Law of Organization
- Perceptual Constancy: Size, Shape, and Color; Illusions
- Perception of Form, Depth and Movement
- Role of motivation and learning in perception
- Signal detection theory: Assumptions and applications
- Subliminal perception and related factors, information processing approach to perception, culture and perception, perceptual styles, Pattern recognition, Ecological perspective on perception.
- Learning Process:
- Fundamental theories: Thorndike, Guthrie, Hull
- Classical Conditioning: Procedure, phenomena and related issues
- Instrumental learning: Phenomena, Paradigms and theoretical issues; Reinforcement: Basic variables and schedules; Behaviour modification and its applications
- Cognitive approaches in learning: Latent learning, observational learning.
- Verbal learning and Discrimination learning
- Recent trends in learning: Neurophysiology of learning
- Memory and Forgetting
- Memory processes: Encoding, Storage, Retrieval
- Stages of memory: Sensory memory, Short-term memory (Working memory), Long-term Memory (Declarative – Episodic and Semantic; Procedural)
- Theories of Forgetting: Interference, Retrieval Failure, Decay, Motivated forgetting
Thinking, Intelligence and Creativity :
- Theoretical perspectives on thought processes: Associationism, Gestalt, Information processing, Feature integration model
- Concept formation: Rules, Types, and Strategies; Role of concepts in thinking Types of Reasoning
- Language and thought
- Problem solving: Type, Strategies, and Obstacles
- Decision-making: Types and models
- Metacognition: Metacognitive knowledge and Metacognitive regulation
- Intelligence: Spearman; Thurstone; Jensen; Cattell; Gardner; Stenberg; Goleman; Das, Kar & Parrila
- Creativity: Torrance, Getzels & Jackson, Guilford, Wallach & Kogan Relationship between Intelligence and Creativity
Personality, Motivation, Emotion, Stress and Coping :
- Determinants of personality: Biological and socio-cultural
- Approaches to the study of personality: Psychoanalytical, Neo-Freudian, Social learning, Trait and Type, Cognitive, Humanistic, Existential, Transpersonal psychology.
- Other theories: Rotter’s Locus of Control, Seligman’s Explanatory styles, Kohlberg’s theory of Moral development.
- Basic motivational concepts: Instincts, Needs, Drives, Arousal, Incentives, Motivational Cycle.
- Approaches to the study of motivation: Psychoanalytical, Ethological, S-R Cognitive, Humanistic
- Exploratory behavior and curiosity
- Zuckerman’s Sensation seeking
- Achievement, Affiliation and Power
- Motivational Competence
- Emotions: Physiological correlates
- Theories of emotions: James-Lange, Canon-Bard, Schachter and Singer, Lazarus, Lindsley.
- Emotion regulation
- Conflicts: Sources and types
- Stress and Coping: Concept, Models, Type A, B, C, D behaviors, Stress management strategies [Biofeedback, Music therapy, Breathing exercises, Progressive Muscular Relaxation, Guided Imagery, Mindfulness, Meditation, Yogasana, Stress Inoculation Training].
Social Psychology :
- Nature, scope and history of social psychology
- Traditional theoretical perspectives: Field theory, Cognitive Dissonance, Sociobiology, Psychodynamic Approaches, Social Cognition.
- Social perception [Communication, Attributions]; attitude and its change within cultural context; prosocial behavior
- Group and Social influence [Social Facilitation; Social loafing]; Social influence [Conformity, Peer Pressure, Persuasion, Compliance, Obedience, Social Power, Reactance]. Aggression. Group dynamics, leadership style and effectiveness. Theories of intergroup relations [Minimal Group Experiment and Social Identity Theory, Relative Deprivation Theory, Realistic Conflict Theory, Balance Theories, Equity Theory, Social Exchange Theory]
- Applied social psychology: Health, Environment and Law; Personal space, crowding, and territoriality.
Human Development and Interventions :
- Developmental processes: Nature, Principles, Factors in development, Stages of Development. Successful aging.
- Theories of development: Psychoanalytical, Behavioristic, and Cognitive Various aspects of development: Sensory-motor, cognitive, language, emotional, social and moral.
- Psychopathology: Concept, Mental Status Examination, Classification, Causes
- Psychotherapies: Psychoanalysis, Person-centered, Gestalt, Existential, Acceptance Commitment Therapy, Behavior therapy, REBT, CBT, MBCT, Play therapy, Positive psychotherapy, Transactional Analysis, Dialectic behavior therapy, Art therapy, Performing Art Therapy, Family therapy.
- Applications of theories of motivation and learning in School
- Factors in educational achievement
- Teacher effectiveness
- Guidance in schools: Needs, organizational set up and techniques
- Counselling: Process, skills, and techniques
Emerging Areas :
- Issues of Gender, Poverty, Disability, and Migration: Cultural bias and discrimination. Stigma, Marginalization, and Social Suffering; Child Abuse and Domestic violence.
- Peace psychology: Violence, non-violence, conflict resolution at macro level, role of media in conflict resolution.
- Wellbeing and self-growth: Types of wellbeing [Hedonic and Eudemonic], Character strengths, Resilience and Post-Traumatic Growth.
- Health: Health promoting and health compromising behaviors, Life style and Chronic diseases [Diabetes, Hypertension, Coronary Heart Disease],
- Psychoneuroimmunology [Cancer, HIV/AIDS]
- Psychology and technology interface: Digital learning; Digital etiquette: Cyber bullying; Cyber pornography: Consumption, implications; Parental mediation of Digital Usage.
UGC NET Psychology Syllabus Download :-4
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